Selasa, 09 Desember 2008

Linux kernel is the kernel used in the operating system GNU / Linux. The kernel of this family is derived from the UNIX operating system, released with a license to use the GNU General Public License (GPL), and developed by programmers around the world. Linux is an example of free software and open source.

Linux was first written by Linus Benedict Torvalds in 1991. At that time, the GNU Project has made many components needed to build a free operating system, but have not had a kernel that underlies the application components. Actual time, there are strong candidates as the foundation GNU operating system, called the Hurd, but development has not been completed. At the beginning of development, Linux is very simple. But owing to the support of all parties (especially community Minix operating system) that contribute to the idea that Linux can be developed.

[edit] History

In April 1991, Linus Torvalds, who aged 21 years to start work memikirikan some ideas for an operating system. He started work with a task switcher in the assembly language for the Intel 80386 and a driver terminal. And, on 25 August 1991, he wrote a posting in the newsgroups comp.os.minix:

I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobbies, will not be big and professional like gnu) for 386 (486) AT clones. This has been brewing since April, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like / dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to the Practical reasons) among other things). I've currently ported bash (1.08) and gcc (1.40), and things seem to work. This implies that I'll get something Practical within a few months [...] Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-Threaded fs. It is NOT portable (uses 386 task switching etc), and it probably never will support anything other than AT-Harddisks, as that's all I have :-(. [...] It's Mostly in C, but most people Mr. call what I write C. It uses every conceivable feature of the 386 I could find, as it was also a project to teach me about the 386. As already mentioned, it uses a MMU, for both paging (not to disk yet) and segmentation. It's the segmentation that makes it REALLY dependent 386 (every task has a 64MB segment for code and data - max 64 tasks in 4Gb. anybody who needs more than 64Mb/task - Tough cookies). Some of my [...] "C"-files (specifically mm.c) are almost as much assembler as C. [...] Especially those minix, I also happen to LIKE interrupts, so interrupts are handled without trying to hide the reason behind them. [3]

Then, many people contribute ideas and code to Linux project. Until September 1991, the Linux version is released 0:01, with the 10,239 lines of code, which is then followed by a 0:02 version in October 1991. In December 1991, released a Linux version 0:11

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